Fractures can be prevented by taking proactive measures to strengthen your bones, reduce bone loss, and minimize your risk of falling. These measures include:
Scientific evidence suggests that smoking is detrimental to bone health. Studies have consistently demonstrated a link between cigarette smoking and decreased bone mineral density, as well as an increased risk of fracture. Compared to ex-smokers or non-smokers, current smokers tend to have lower bone mass, underscoring the importance of quitting smoking as a way to promote bone health.
Excessive alcohol consumption is known to negatively impact bone health by causing irregular menstrual cycles in women and lowering testosterone levels in men, which ultimately leads to impaired bone integrity. Scientific studies have revealed that heavy drinking can significantly increase the risk of developing low bone mass and fractures. Hence, it is advisable to limit alcohol consumption in order to maintain healthy bones.
Maintaining adequate calcium levels is important for healthy bones. There are
two primary ways to get calcium: through dietary intake and supplementation.
While calcium supplementation has a minor positive effect on bone mineral
density, there is some concern that excessive supplementation may increase the
risk of heart attack (myocardial infarction).
It is important to maintain an adequate level of calcium in the body for optimal bone health. The recommended daily intake of calcium is between 1000 and 1300 mg per day, which can be obtained from both dietary intake and supplementation. Good dietary sources of calcium include dairy products such as milk, yogurt, cheese, and soy products. Additionally, some leafy green vegetables and nuts are also good sources of calcium.
Vitamin D is crucial for building strong bones and plays a vital role in calcium absorption from the diet. It is important to ensure that you have adequate levels of both calcium and vitamin D. Studies have shown that taking vitamin D with calcium supplements can help reduce the risk of hip fractures, particularly in individuals residing in institutional care. It is recommended to maintain a daily intake of 600 to 800 IU of vitamin D. Although exposure to sunlight is a natural way to obtain vitamin D, it may not be a reliable source for everyone. Therefore, supplements or non-fortified foods can be used to provide adequate vitamin D levels.
Protein is a crucial component of every cell in your body, including your bones. Adequate protein intake is associated with good bone mineral density. It is recommended to consume 0.9 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight each day. For example, if you weigh 65 kg, you should aim to consume about 58 grams of protein daily. Protein can be obtained from both animal and plant sources.
Although it may appear inert, bone is actually a dynamic organ that constantly removes old tissues and replaces them with new ones. Exercise can help stimulate the cells responsible for building new tissues. It is recommended that you engage in weight-bearing exercises such as walking, running, dancing, or tennis, as well as resistance exercises like using elastic bands, swimming, or muscle strengthening, for 3 to 4 days each week.
Preventing falls can significantly reduce the risk of fracture, as over 90% of hip fractures are caused by falls. Engaging in weight-bearing exercise can improve balance and lower the risk of falls. When indoors, it is important to take the following precautions to prevent falls: